Heat and Mass Transfer
Heat is a process that transfers energy from one object to another. Usually, the heat can be transferred from high-temperature object to low-temperature object. There are three methods, which are used in order to transfer energy. The methods transferring heat are Conduction, Convevtion and Thermal Raditaion.
Conduction is a process of heat transfer. In solid materials, heat
can be transferred with the help of free electrons, photons and temporary movements of atoms. On the other hand, the phonons, free electrons and movement of atoms can transfer heat in liquid materials; whereas random collision of gases transfers the heat from the gases.
It is another process of transference of heat. In this process, heat can be transferred from one object to another much quicker than the conductions process. Convection process is divided into two types such as forced convection and the free convection. Forced convection is a process that transfers heat with the help of extrernal forces such as use of a fan in oven for the purpose to blow the air. However, free convection is a process that transfers heat due to the relationship between mass and temperature.
The third process of trasnferring heat is thermal radiation. In this process, heat can be transferred through the dissemination of electromagnetic waves.Electromagnetic waves can transfer the heat in the form of gases.
In the year of 1798, a physicsts, Count Rumford, perceived that the amount of heat is related to the number of mechanical work done.The amount of work done can be denoted as W and Q denotes the number of heat produced.The amount of work done is directly proportional to the number of heat transferred. However, the alphabet J is used as a constant for this relationship. J is known as the joule’s constant. There is 4.186 joule are present in one calorie.
Heat capacity is a process that requires heat for the purpose to increase the temperature of one substance or material at certain degree. For instance, if a person wants to increase the temperature till 1 degree Celsius of two materials of equal masses such as copper and water, then the large number of heat is transferred into the water rather than copper. This happens because water has more heat capacity.
The transfer of mass is the process of transference of mass from one place to another. Moreover, this process can be phase, component, fraction, stream or it can be anything. There are numbers of processes through which the mass can be transferred. The processes of transferring mass includes drying, drying, precipitation, adsorption, evaporation, distillation, and membrane filtration.
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