GPS Assignment Help
The system provides essential capabilities to civil, military, and commercial users all over the world. The system was created by the United States government, maintains it and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
The US began the GPS endeavor including a number of classified engineering design studies
from the 1960s to beat the limits of previous navigation systems incorporating thoughts from several forerunners in 1973. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) developed the system, which initially used 24 satellites. It became fully functional in 1995. Roger L. Easton,Ivan A. Getting and Bradford Parkinson are credited with inventing it.
Improvements in technology and new requirements on the existing system have now led to attempts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX). These changes were initiated by Announcements from Vice President Al Gore as well as the White House in 1998. In 2000, the U.S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, GPS III.
Besides GPS, other systems are in use or under development. In addition, there are the planned European UnionGalileo positioning system, Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, and also the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for military applications, however in the 1980s, the government made the system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere on the planet, twenty-four hours a day. There are not any subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS.
GPS satellites circle the earth two times a day in an extremely precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use trilateration to figure out the user’s same place. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with all the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a couple more satellites, the receiver can discover the user’s location and show it at the unit’s electronic map.
A GPS receiver should be locked in on to the signal of at least 3 satellites to compute a 2D location (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the user’s 3-D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). The user’s position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information such as bearing, speed, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.
Today’s GPS receivers are extremely accurate, thanks to their parallel multi-station design. Certain atmospheric factors and other sources of malfunction can affect the precision of GPS receivers. Garmin GPS receivers are accurate to within 15 meters, on average.
No additional equipment or fees are needed to make the most of WAAS. The U.S. Coast Guard manages the most common DGPS correction service. This system is made up of network of towers that receive GPS signals and transmit a corrected signal by beacon transmitters. So as to get the corrected signal, users should have a differential beacon receiver and beacon antenna as well as their GPS.
The GPS satellite system
The 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbiting the world about 12,000 miles above us. The users are constantly moving, making two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. These satellites are travelling at speeds of about 7,000 miles an hour.
GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. They have backup batteries onboard to keep them running in the event of a solar eclipse, when there is no solar power. Small rocket boosters on each satellite keep them flying in the right route.
— The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978.
— A complete constellation of 24 satellites was achieved in 1994.
— Each satellite is built to last about a decade. Replacements are always being assembled and launched into orbit.
— A GPS satellite weighs around 2,000 pounds and is about 17 feet extended.
— Transmitter power is 50 Watts or less.
Our world depends upon the Global Positioning System (GPS). With GPS, our soldiers are safer, first responders are faster, banking and investing is instantaneous, business is more efficient and everyday living is simply easier.
GPS technology is found in everything from mobile phones and wristwatches to ship containers and ATM’s. The system boosts productivity in almost every aspect of society and across a wide swath of the market, to comprise farming, construction mining, supply chain management, surveying and much more. Important communications include networks, banking systems, financial markets, and power grids depend on GPS and the technology is embedded in almost each part of U.S. military operations.
Most of the GPS satellites on orbit have surpassed their operational design life and users are requiring more complex capabilities. To sustain and modernize the constellation, the U.S. Air Force and Lockheed Martin are developing the next generation satellite system known as GPS III.
Navigation, place and timing services will improve and provide advanced anti-jam abilities giving first-class system security, precision and reliability. GPS III will:
— Deliver signs three times more precise than present GPS spacecraft.
— Provide military users up to eight times enhanced anti-jamming abilities.
— Due to the advanced design, GPS III’s operational life is additionally expected to go out 15 years and beyond, more than 25 percent longer in relation to the latest Block IIF satellites.
— Civil users will locate considerably enriched global connectivity later on, when GPS III becomes the first GPS satellite to host a civil L1C signal will be shared by other emerging international Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS).