Fuels, Combustion and Pollution
Fuel is formed by natural resources such as anaerobic decomposition of dead organisms that were hidden. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels sometimes surpasses 650 million years. There is a high concentration of carbon is present in the fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Fossil fuels range from volatile substances to non-volatile substances. Volatile substances have low carbon hydrogen ratios such as methane and anthracite coal. However, nonvolatile materials are made of pure carbon such as liquid petroleum. Methane could be found in hydrocarbon areas that linked with oil or in the type of methane. In the year of 1556, the scientist George Agricola and after that in the 18th century Mikhail Lomonosov presented the theory of biogenic.
Fuels include natural gas and coal, together with the more
familiar fuels refined from crude oil such as petrol, diesel, and fuel oils. Combustion or the burning of fossil fuels is one of the leading source that produces pollution in the environment. In result of the pollution, the environmental issues are emerge such as acid rain, smog, health, climate change and many others.
Pollutants that come from the combustion of fossil fuels contain nitrogen oxides(NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), and ground-level ozone. All these fossil fuels can become the cause of pollution.
These pollutants are an effect of the usage of atmosphere, which is made up of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) in the combustion procedure, along with the existence of complex hydrocarbons, additives, and impurities such as sulphur within the fuel. Many pollutants are released when engines are not tuned or operating correctly.
Other technological improvements include the development of cleaner fuels, improved engine layout, and being able to capitalize on new and renewable energy sources. The attraction of all these brand new technologies is a reduction in a liberty from small resources supplies and the amount of pollutants being generated.
There are so many activities that we should use in order to reduce the effects of pollution.The activities that can reduce the pollutions are listed below:
• Buy alternative fuels and hybrid vehicles
• Development of clean air
• Vehicles and all other transports does not generate a lot of carbon
We can cause air pollution directly through our usage of fuels, electricity, and transport.Oil has carbon with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen. The entire combustion of coal is producing carbon dioxide. This is non-toxic, however it leads to the greenhouse effect if it is produced in surplus.The fewer quantity of the nitrogen oxide and the sulphur oxide can be reason of acid rain.
We purchase goods and services that use energy in the creation and at the time of delivery that can cause to us indirectly. Emission of the fossil fuels is one of the reason that can produce the air pollution.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a great index of how much fossil fuel is burned and how much of other pollutants are emitted consequently. Using carbon dioxide as an example, air pollution is caused by the average family in the United States.
All fossil fuels usually generate a lot of greenhouse gases on burning. These gases include carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide gas etc.
— The carbon dioxide gas is to blame for generating greenhouse effect. Such as increasing the temperature of the earth and causing global warming
— On the other hand, gases that include sulphur and nitrogen oxide are mainly accountable for causing acid rain. These gases tend to change the soil, water and forest resources. The acid rain is responsible for causing damage to the building made up of marble.
— Burning of coal also produces these dangerous gases. Additionally, it releases large amount of smoke which gets suspended in it. Furthermore, the ash created, during the combustion of fossil fuels, is quite difficult to dispose away.
The generation of ash and air pollution by the combustion of fossil fuels is mainly because of the inefficiency of the combustion procedure. We can reduce the escape of these harmful gases and ashes etc, by using various latest techniques. By using alternative sources of energy reduces the burden on the combustion of the fossil fuels.
In a year India generates a 0.1 billion tons of pollutants in the atmosphere. According to the experts, this rate will increase in the future. Any kind of pollution is harmful for both humans and non-living things. This issue can be solved on an urgent basis. Firstly, we should determine air pollution in detail and talk about the method of controlling and preventing pollution.
Air pollution can be defined as the reversal of composition of atmosphere with the addition of damaging materials such as the industrial and car gases.
Airborne nitrogen pollution impacts not only the quality of the atmosphere we breathe, however the land along with the water. Nitrogen is critical to animal and plant life. It is the most abundant element in the air. Sources of nitrogen from human activities include transport, industry, agriculture and electric power generation. All these sources can create the balance of nitrogen in the air.
The most frequent nitrogen-related compounds emitted into the air by human activities are known as nitrogen oxides. Ammonia is another nitrogen compound emitted to the atmosphere, mainly from agricultural activities as well asfrom the fossil fuels. Transportation or the businesses are the main causes that can create the nitrogen in the environment of the US.
The presence of excessive nitrogen in the atmosphere in the form of ammonia or nitrogen oxides is deposited back onto land, where it washes into nearby water bodies. These excessive nutrients contribute to harmful algal blooms, pollution and oxygen-deprived zones that are aquatic. Excess ammonia influences their survival and low pH are toxic to aquatic organisms.
Air pollution can be controlled by different procedures depending on the source as well as the pollutant. One of the major causes of air pollution is the cars. The fuels should be lead-free as this will reduce the level of lead in the atmosphere. The carburetor should be cleaned often and good quality fuel should be used. This reduces the smoke emission from the exhaust pipes of the vehicles. Attempts to introduce vehicles running on alternate sources of energy ought to be made.
There is a need to pass the polluting from the filters and some other systems such as cyclone collectors, scrubbers, precipitators, etc. So that the particulate matter is removed before the waste gases are discharged out. The noxious gases ought to be detoxified. The industrial and national smoke generating units should have long chimneys to take the polluting gases far above and then disperse over a bigger area. They should also put money into solar cookers or bio gas.
The pollution by sulphur dioxide is principally due to coal-based industries. Alternate non-sulphur containing fuel has to be used. Additionally, it is possible to eliminate the sulphur from the fuel before use. More trees of such types should be planted. For successful control and avoidance of air pollution, it is important to give awareness to the general public about the damages from the air pollution.
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